Category: Volume 4, No. 2, 2017

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Roles of Hydroxyl Ions in Water-Based Solvents to Isolate Antioxidant Constituents of Natural Products

Yohanes Buang1, Suwari1, Vinsensius M. Ati2, and Antonius R. Basa Ola1

1Department of Chemistry and  2Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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Roles of hydroxyl ions in water-based solvents to isolate antioxidant constituents of natural products were studied in present research. Sarang semut (Myrmecodia pendens) tuber as the model material of the study was considered to be the strategic natural product based on its biochemical and therapeutical effects. Water with pH of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 13.0 were used as the solvents in macerations.  Results showed that water with various working pH applied yielded the pH of each resulting extracts equaled to 7.  The antioxidant levels of the resulted extracts indicated that higher the working pH, higher antioxidant activity of the resulted extracts. The extents of the antioxidant activities mimicked their antibacterial activities. The study also found that higher pH of the working solvent, higher amounts of the antioxidant/antibacterial extracts. In conclusion: the hydroxyl ions of water-based solvents applied in a maceration technology play critical role to promote the concentrations of extracts isolatable from the natural products as well as the antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity of the isolated extracts.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p344

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Catalytic Hydrogenation of Dimethylnitrobenzene to Dimethylaniline Over Pd/C Catalysts

Mansoor Kazemimoghadam

1-Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Tehran, IRAN

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The catalytic transfer hydrogenation of dimethylnitrobenzene to dimethylaniline was studied in the temperature range 343–403, a pressure range of 4–10 bar H2 and ethanol as solvent using Pd/C as catalyst above agitation speed 800 rpm. The substrate feed concentration was varied in the range from 0.124 to 0.745 kmol/m3 while catalyst loading was in the range 4–12% (w/w) of dimethylnitrobenzene. Dimethylaniline was the only reaction product, generated through the hydrogenation of the Nitro group of dimethylnitrobenzene. The effects of hydrogen partial pressure, catalyst loading, dimethylnitrobenzene concentration and temperature on the reaction conversion have been reported. Near first-order dependence on dimethylnitrobenzene concentration and hydrogen pressure were observed for the initial rate of dimethyl-nitrobenzene hydrogenation over the 5% Pd/C catalyst. Furthermore, an increase in the catalytic activity as the reaction temperature, pressure and weight of catalysts was observed. Conventional Arrhenius behavior was exhibited by the catalyst, Pd/C showed activation energies of 614 J/mol.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p353

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Bawane SP, Sawant SB. Hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to metol using Raney nickel catalyst: Reaction kinetics. A. 2005;293:162-170. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2005.07.004
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Bovkun TT, Grayevsky M, Sasson Y, Blum J. Liquid phase hydrogenation and hydrodenitrogenation of aromatic nitrogen-containing environmental pollutants. J. 2007;270(1-2):171-176. doi:10.1016/j.molcata.2007.01.051
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Hao Y-Z, Li Z-X, Tian J-L. Synthesis, characteristics and catalytic activity of water-soluble [Pd(lysine·HCl)(Cl)2] complex as hydrogenation catalyst. J. 2007;265(1-2):258-267. doi:10.1016/j.molcata.2006.09.045
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Simultaneous Adsorptions of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in Hard Water by Synthetic Silica Gels Modified with Dithizone

Maria Yasintha1 and Hermania Em Wogo2

1Department of Chemistry Education, Nusa Nipa University, Maumere, NTT, INDONESIA; 2Department of Chemistry, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, NTT, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Simultaneous adsorptions of Pb (II) and Cd (II) in hard water by synthetic silica gel which was modified with dithizone were studied. The products treated in the study were silica gel synthesized from the rice husk dust (SG), SG physically modified with dithizone (SGD-Phys), and the SG chemically modified with dithizone (SGD-Chem). Analyses of metals contained in samples were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The results showed that the capacity and the sorptions energy of Pb (II) and Cd (II) were increased gradually with the arrangement: SG < SGD-Phys < SGD-Chem. The sorptions capacity gradual 719.42 μmol/g; 724.64 μmol/g and 826.45 μmol/g for Pb (II) metal ions and 847.46 μmol/g, 900.09 μmol/g and 925.93 μmol/g for Cd (II) metal ions, whereas the sorptions energy gradual 24.65 kJ/mol, 24.79 kJ/mol, and 25.33 kJ/mol for Pb (II) metal ions and 20.95 kJ/mol, 21.31 kJ/mol and 21.49 kJ/mol for Cd (II) metal ions. The sorptions process of Pb (II) mostly happened by ion exchange mechanism, while Cd (II) mostly happened by pitfall mechanism.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p359

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Modeling Dehydration of Acetone by Use of Polyacrylonitrile Membrane and Polyethylene Glycol with the Help of Artificial Neural Network

Mansoor Kazemimoghadam1* and Zahra Amiri2

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, IRAN, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN

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The authors of this research analyzed the amount of water-acetone separation in the pervaporation process by means of polyacrylonitrile membranes and polyethylene glycol with the help of artificial neural network. The pervaporation process can be applied for separation of many liquids (separation of acetone from water in this research). Due to azeotropic with water, acetone has purity problems. The amounts achieved from the experimental data were compared to the modeling data, and the results were analyzed. In this research, the effects of such parameters as volumetric flow rate and temperature, as well as feedstuff properties (separation factor and flux) on the dehydration process efficiency were evaluated, and the Multi Layers Perceptron neural network feed forward along with propagation learning algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt function with 2 inputs and outputs were implemented. Tansig activation algorithm was used for the hidden layer, and purely algorithm was utilized for the output layer. Furthermore, 5 neurons were defined for the hidden layer. After processing the data, 70 percent were allocated for learning, 15% were allocated for validity, and the remaining 15% was allocated for the experience. The achieved results with the aforementioned method had a suitable accuracy. The graphs of the error percentage for the actual values of the separation factor and flux outputs were compared to the achieved values from modeling through polyacrylonitrile membranes and polyethylene glycol for evaluating the efficiency of pervaporation process in the separation of acetone from the water. Finally, the graphs were drawn.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p364

Characterization of Curcumin Encapsulation in Chitosan-Sodium Citrate Nanoparticles

Praptanti Sinung Adi Nugroho and Umi Nafisah

Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Indonusa Surakarta, MangkuyudanSurakarta; INDONESIA

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The encapsulation of curcumin in chitosan-sodium citrate nanoparticle was studied with ionic gelation method. Identification of functional groups was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry method. The crystallinity characteristic was tested by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Particle size determination was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy, whereas the morphological characterization was tested by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that the electrostatic interaction between the amine group and a carboxyl group could cause a shift in the uptake of chitosan-sodium citrate nanoparticles at wave number 1635 cm-1 to 1581 cm-1. Qualitative data of XRD spectra showed that there reduced crystallinity of curcumin. Nanoparticles had a size of ±95nm.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p370

Improving Feed Intake and Digestibility of Rations for Male Bali Cattle Fattened with Common Practice Meals, in Timor, by the Addition of a Complete Diet Containing Moringa oleifera Powder

Sukawaty Fattah1, Yohanis Umbu Laiya Sobang1, and Frederic Dedy Samba2

1Lecturer at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Nusa Cendana University; 2Student of Animal Sciences Post Graduate Program, Nusa Cendana University, Jl. AdisuciptoPenfui, PO Box 104 Kupang; INDONESIA

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This research was carried out at Oeletsala village, Taebenu sub-district, the Regency of Kupang, for 16 weeks, comprised of four periods. Due to Latin Square design used, each period consisted of 1 week preliminary for adaptation, 2 weeks for collecting data, and followed by 1 week interval before the next period. The aims of the research were to study the effects of feeding a complete diet containing Moringa oleifera powder on feed intake and the digestibility of crude fiber, carbohydrate, and net energy (NEE) of Bali cattle fattened in commonly practiced by the local farmer. Four growing male Bali cattle of 1 – 1.5 years old with an average of body weight ranging from 82 – 124 kg, were employed in this study. Latin Square Design consisted four treatments and four periods as replicates. Those treatments were T0= local feeds as commonly fed by local farmers + 0% Moringa oleifera powder in the complete diet, T1= local feeds + 5 % Moringa oleifera powder in the complete diet, T2= local feeds + 10 % Moringa oleifera powder in the complete diet, and T3= local feeds + 15 % Moringa oleifera powder in the complete diet. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) found both on feed intake and the digestibility of crude fiber, carbohydrate, and NEE.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00402p373