Category: Current Issue

JACSON:Vol. 5 No. 2, 2018 (Dec. 14, 2018)

Antioxidant Activity of Methanol and n-Hexane Fractions of the Barf of Kersen (Muntingia Calabura) Extracts

Rosalina Y. Kurang and Zakarias A. Mautuka

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tribuana Kalabahi, Alor, INDONESIA

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Antioxidants are substances that can slow or prevent the oxidation process. Antioxidants can also be defined as compounds that protect cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen free radicals. Plants containing antioxidants are chemotactonomically characterized by chemical compounds derived from phenolics such as flavonoids, coumarin, xanthones, benzophenone, tannin, lignin, and anthraquinone. Muntingia calabura is one of the plants that is well known in Indonesian forests. Based on previous research, it was reported that a number of flavones and their derivatives that have bioactivity have been successfully isolated from this plant. One area that has this plant is Alor island- Nusa Tenggara Timur. This plant has several benefits, including as a trasditional medicine. The community uses this plant, where as a shade plant for shade and the fruit is consumed directly. However, until now the community has not used this plant as a medicinal plant and there has also been no research on Kersen (Muntingia calabura) from this area. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the bark Muntingia calabura (Kersen) methanol and n-hexane fraction. The method used is the extraction and the DPPH method. The results obtained showed that the antioxidant activity of the bark of Muntingia calabura methanol fraction (IC50 124.58 ppm) was higher than the n-hexane fraction (IC50 244.95 ppm). From the IC50  values, of the both fractions showed that the methanol fraction was very active against antioxidants because it had an IC50 value close to the IC50 value of the positive control 112.872 ppm, while the hexane fraction was less active against antioxidants but still had the potential as an antioxidant.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p488

Geostatistical Analysis of Plastic Waste Disposal to Ecosystem (Vegetation) in Kefamenanu of North Central Timor Regency

Hermina Manlea

Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Timor,  INDONESIA

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The research was conducted in June – July 2017, in Kefamenanu of North Central Timor District. Number of locations of plastic waste contamination used as research sites were 44 (forty-four) points. The samples in this study w1ere 4 points of plastic waste disposal. The objectives of this research are: 1) to geostatistically mapping soil pH, soil moisture, air temperature and humidity of area contaminated by plastic waste disposal in Kefamenanu, 2) to know which species are found in research location, 3) to understand statistically the relationship between accumulation of plastic waste to vegetation density in Kefamenanu.The method used in this research are: 1) data collection of plastic waste dumping point by using GPS. The location is expressed in latitude and longitude coordinates; 2) sampling method was purposive sampling. The analysis of vegetation is quantitative analysis, and quadratic method was used for research implementation of terrestrial vegetation. The observed data were analyzed in the following ways: a) Geostatistical map of the area was generated from ArcGIS 10.4 software, b) Calculating density parameters, and c) Statistical analysis using t-test for two independent means.The study revealed that From inferential statistical analysis through t-test, it cannot be proved that there is a difference in vegetation density between accumulated and not accumulated plastic waste sites because the number of samples analyzed is very small. Statistically descriptive through the calculation of the mean (also illustrated in the mean graph), there is a difference in the mean of the density of vegetation (either absolute density or relative density) between the accumulated and non-accumulated plastic waste sites.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p477

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Halden RU. Plastics and Health Risks. A. 2010;31(1):179-194. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103714
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Physiological Status of Fattening Bali Cattle Feeding a Concentrate Containing Gliricidia sepium Leaves Meal Fortified with Vitamin B-Complex and Vermicide

Sukawaty  Fattah *1, Yohanis U. L. Sobang*1, Marthen Yunus*1, F. D. Samba*2, and Erna Hartati*1

1Lecturer at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry 2Student of Animal Sciences Post Graduate Program

Nusa Cendana University, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, P.O. Box 104 Kupang 85001 East Nusa Tenggara Telp.(0380) 881580, Fax (0380) 881674, INDONESIA

1The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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This research has been conducted at Oeletsala village, for 10 weeks from 23 November 2015 to 23 January 2016, comprised of 2 weeks preliminary and 8 weeks for data collection. The aim of the research was to study the effect of feeding on Gliricidia sepium leaves meal concentrate, B. complex vitamin and vermicide on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of fattening Bali cattle. Experimental animals used were nine young male Bali cattle of 1.5-2 years old, with an initial body weight ranging from 82 to 124 kg (KV=15.114%) in average of 98.7±14.93 kg. The experimental design used was Randomized Block Design with three treatments and three replications. Those treatments were R0 = leaves of Leucaena leucocephala and Ceiba pentandra+ native grass ad libitum (as commonly practiced by local farmers), R1 = R0 + 2 kg concentrate, and R2 = R1 + B. complex vitamin and vermicide. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significantly effect of the treatments on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of the fattening Bali cattle. In conclusion, there was no significantly effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves meal concentrate, vitamin B. complex and vermicide on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of the fattening Bali cattle.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p464

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Astuti DA, Sudarman A. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS. B. 2015;39(2):116. doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v39i2.6716
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Ake A. Effects of transportation and thermal stress on donkeys in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria: A review. J. 2013;7(8):92-101. doi:10.5897/jcab2013.0370
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Bulitta FS, Aradom S, Gebresenbet G. Effect of Transport Time of up to 12 Hours on Welfare of Cows and Bulls. J. 2015;08(02):161-182. doi:10.4236/jssm.2015.82019
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Buckham Sporer KR, Weber PSD, Burton JL, Earley B, Crowe MA. Transportation of young beef bulls alters circulating physiological parameters that may be effective biomarkers of stress1. Journal of Animal Science. 2008;86(6):1325-1334. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0762
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Wuri DA, Bale-Therik JF, Bouk G. Effect of Concentration of Soursop (Annona muricata) Leaf and Soaking Time on Protein and Fat Contents and Sensory Quality of Raw Chicken Meat. J. 2018;5(1):388-393. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00501p388
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Fattah S, Sobang YUL, et al. Improving Feed Intake and Digestibility of Rations for Male Bali Cattle Fattened with Common Practice Meals, in Timor, by the Addition of a Complete Diet Containing Moringa oleifera Powder. J. December 2017:373-376. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00402p373

Extraction and Characterization of Crop Oil from Seed Kernels of Feunkase (Thevetia peruviana) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

Suwari1, Herry Z. Kotta2, and Yohanes Buang1

1Chemistry Department and 2Mining Department, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, Nusa Cendana University Jl. Adisucipto Kampus Baru Penfui, Kupang, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The seed kernels of Feunkase (Thevetia peruviana) was extracted with n-hexane and methanol mixture in a soxhlet extractor. The optimum condition for extraction of the crop oil from the seed kernel of Feunkase using conventional soxhlet technique was studied.  Solvent used was n-hexane and n-hexane – methanol binary solvent. The parameters investigated effecting the oil yield involved various solvent polarities, extraction time and temperature. Each experiment was conducted in 250 cm3 soxhlet apparatus. The extracted oil was analyzed to examine the physicochemical characteristic, included: density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and water content. The optimum conditions were found after 4.0 h extraction time, extraction temperature of 70 oC and n-hexane – methanol ratio of 50:50 (polarity index 3.30). The oil extract was found to be 46.84 ± 0.26%.  The physicochemical properties of the extracted oil were density of 785 (kg/m3), viscosity of 0.68 (mm2/s), iodine value of 41.11 (g I2/100 g oil), acid value of 0.09 (mg KOH/g oil), saponification value of 108.4 (mg KOH/g oil) and water content of 0.034 (%). These results revealed that the crop oil from seed kernel Feunkase is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p459

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Panchal B. Optimization of Oil Extraction and Characterization from Tamarindus Indica Linn Seed Oil. O. 2014;2(1):1. doi:10.11648/j.ogce.20140201.11
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Sicaire A-G, Vian M, Fine F, et al. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing. I. 2015;16(12):8430-8453. doi:10.3390/ijms16048430
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Buang Y, Suwari, et al. Roles of Hydroxyl Ions in Water-Based Solvents to Isolate Antioxidant Constituents of Natural Products. J. December 2017:344-352. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00402p344

Characterization of Cinnamadehyde Compound Isolated from Cinnamon Oil and Its Salmonella Typhy Antibacterial Activity

Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah1, Moses K. Tokan2, and Agus Saputra3

1Chemistry Study Program,  Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University ,2Biology Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University,3Faculty of Veterinary, Nusa Cendana University, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Today many infectious diseases are common. All of the diseases are caused by agents such as viruses or bacteria which are pathogenic and Salmonella typhi  is one of  the pathogenic bacteria. In addition, many antibiotics are not able to work properly because of the resistance of bacteria against the exciting antibiotics. Therefore, research to discovered new anti-bacterial compounds derived from natural materials is important to do. This research was conducted in several stages, such as; (1) Isolation of Cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil by two methods: thin layer chromatography method using n-hexane : ethanol eluent at a ratio of 5 : 95 and bisulfate addition  method. (2) Identification of cinnamaldehyde by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and GC-MS to define its purity. (3) Antibacterial activity test of cinnamaldehyde to the growth of  Salmonella typhi  with different concentrations of  cinnamaldehyde solution i.e 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 60 ppm, and 100 ppm. (4) Then the growth of the tested bacteria was observed by using a colony counter to see the diameter of the resistance which was caused by the test solution.  Analysis result of Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrophotometer showed that cinnamon oil (Cassia oil) contains cinnamaldehyde as the main component of 88.33 %. The isolation of cinnamaldehyde by bisulfate addition method obtained cinnamaldehyde as yellow fluid with a yield of 86.79 %.. The result of antibacterial activity test indicated that cinnamaldehyde had the potential as an antibacterial to against the Salmonella typhi seen from its inhibition zone. At the concentration of 100 ppm, cinnamaldehyde solution showed an inhibitory diameter of 15,4 mm and amoxicillin antibiotic showed  of 16,6 mm.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p469

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Identification and Characterization of Fat Compositions Contained within the Hexane Extracts of Canarium Seed Oils (Canarium Indicum L)

Rosalina Y. Kurang and Risnawati I. Sakuang

 Departement of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Tribuana Kalabahi University, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The one of the plants producing fatty acids is a canary plant which is found everywhere in Alor Island, NTT province, Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the content and types of fatty acids of Canary seed oil (Canarium indicum L). The method used was extraction method and continued by the GC-MS for fatty acid characterization. Results of the analysis showed that Canary seed oil contains saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid and stearic acid while the unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p473

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Shakirin FH, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Yuon LC, Azlan A. Antioxidant capacity of underutilized Malaysian Canarium odontophyllum (dabai) Miq. fruit. J. 2010;23(8):777-781. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2010.04.008

Validation of Spectrophotometric Method for Analyses of Anionic Surfactant Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (DBS) in Catfish (Clarias batrachus) Using Malachite Green

Hermawan Purba1, Adhitasari Suratman2, and Eko Sugiharto2

1Department of D-III Health Analyst, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan (STIKes) Senior – Medan; 2Department of Chemistry,  Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University – Yogyakarta, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Validation method of DBS anionic surfactant analysis on Clarias batrachus has been conducted. The method of analysis was divided into two phase, namely the extraction  with solid-liquid extraction using Soxhlet and analysis DBS. The extraction was performed using n-hexane and methanol for 9 and 6 hours respectively. The analysis was performed using Spektrophotometer UV-Vis based on the complex formation of surfactant-malachite green (DBS-MG). These methods are applied to determine DBS accumulation of Clarias batrachus with DBS concentration exposure and DBS concentration of Clarias batrachus in markets. The result showed that the parameters of validation methods has high acceptability as linearity (R2 = 0.99), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.029 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L), sensitivity (ε = 38.15 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1), precision (RSD = 0.10-1.83 %) and accuracy (recovery = 80-92 %). The result of DBS analysis in Clarias batrachus with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 mg/L of DBS concentration exposures obtained 5.5, 6.8, 7.9, 8.7 mg/L respectively and Clarias batrachus from markets in a range 2.0-4.2 mg/L. The result showed that the analysis of DBS anionic surfactants using MG can be applied for Clarias batrachus.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p483

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León VM, López C, Lara-Martín PA, Prats D, Varó P, González-Mazo E. Removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their degradation intermediates at low temperatures during activated sludge treatment. C. 2006;64(7):1157-1166. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.045
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Investigation of the Effect of a Flocculent of Bentonite Clay with MgCO3 in Synthetic AMD Treatment

Oupa I. Ntwampe* and Moothi K

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Effect of a flocculent of bentonite clay with MgCO3 in Synthetic AMD was investigated in present study. The AMD samples were collected from the western decant in Krugersdorp, South Africa was modified by adding arsenic, zinc and cobalt. The pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen reduction potential (ORP) and turbidity were measured. Those samples were treated with bentonite clay, MgCO3 and a flocculent of bentonite clay and MgCO3 respectively in a jar test, employing either rapid or slow mixing. Results showed that the conductivity of the samples with increasing bentonite clay while keeping MgCO3 constant decreased with increasing dosage, which was attributed to adsorption of the ions onto the negative sites of the porous bentonite when ionic strength increased. The oxygen content of the DO and ORP was not influenced by the rate of mechanical agitation, i.e. rapid and slow mixing respectively. Destabilization-hydrolysis was not influenced by the pH but the ionic strength of the colloidal AMD suspension, valence and electronegative of the metal ions. Turbidity removal of the synthetic flocculent used occured through physico-chemical phenomenon (SEM micrographs) and charged porous bentonite clay. In conclusion: Bentonite clay controls equilibrium state of the ionic strength of the system through adsorption of excess ions added to the system. Velocity gradient induced by mechanical agitation does not have an influence on the turbidity removal.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p435

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Synthesis, Evaluation, Modeling and Simulation of Nano-pore NaA Zeolite Membranes

Mansoor Kazemimoghadam1 and Zahra Amiri Rigi2

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, IRAN, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN

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Zeolite membranes have uniform and molecular-sized pores that separate molecules based on the differences in the molecules’ adsorption and diffusion properties. Strong electrostatic interaction between ionic sites and water molecules (due to its highly polar nature) makes the zeolite NaA membrane very hydrophilic. Zeolite NaA membranes are thus well suited for the separation of liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation. In this study, experiments were conducted with various Ethanol–water mixtures (1–20 wt. %) at 25 °C. Total flux for Ethanol–water mixtures was found to vary from 0.331 to 0.229 kg/m2.h with increasing Ethanol concentration from 1 to 20 wt.%. Ionic sites of the NaA zeolite matrix play a very important role in water transport through the membrane. These sites act both as water sorption and transport sites. Surface diffusion of water occurs in an activated fashion through these sites. The precise Nano-porous structure of the zeolite cage helps in a partial molecular sieving of the large solvent molecules leading to high separation factors. A comparison between experimental flux and calculated flux using Stephan Maxwell (S.M.) correlation was made and a linear trend was found to exist for water flux through the membrane with Ethanol concentration. A comprehensive model also was proposed for the Ethanol/water pervaporation (PV) by Finite Element Method (FEM). The 2D model was masterfully capable of predicting water concentration distribution within both the membrane and the feed side of the pervaporation membrane module.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p445

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