Category: Article Direct

Characterization of Cinnamadehyde Compound Isolated from Cinnamon Oil and Its Salmonella Typhy Antibacterial Activity

Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah1, Moses K. Tokan2, and Agus Saputra3

1Chemistry Study Program,  Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University ,2Biology Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University,3Faculty of Veterinary, Nusa Cendana University, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

Today many infectious diseases are common. All of the diseases are caused by agents such as viruses or bacteria which are pathogenic and Salmonella typhi  is one of  the pathogenic bacteria. In addition, many antibiotics are not able to work properly because of the resistance of bacteria against the exciting antibiotics. Therefore, research to discovered new anti-bacterial compounds derived from natural materials is important to do. This research was conducted in several stages, such as; (1) Isolation of Cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil by two methods: thin layer chromatography method using n-hexane : ethanol eluent at a ratio of 5 : 95 and bisulfate addition  method. (2) Identification of cinnamaldehyde by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and GC-MS to define its purity. (3) Antibacterial activity test of cinnamaldehyde to the growth of  Salmonella typhi  with different concentrations of  cinnamaldehyde solution i.e 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 60 ppm, and 100 ppm. (4) Then the growth of the tested bacteria was observed by using a colony counter to see the diameter of the resistance which was caused by the test solution.  Analysis result of Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrophotometer showed that cinnamon oil (Cassia oil) contains cinnamaldehyde as the main component of 88.33 %. The isolation of cinnamaldehyde by bisulfate addition method obtained cinnamaldehyde as yellow fluid with a yield of 86.79 %.. The result of antibacterial activity test indicated that cinnamaldehyde had the potential as an antibacterial to against the Salmonella typhi seen from its inhibition zone. At the concentration of 100 ppm, cinnamaldehyde solution showed an inhibitory diameter of 15,4 mm and amoxicillin antibiotic showed  of 16,6 mm.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p469

Cited references
12345671–7

1.
Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). F. 2008;46(10):3227-3239. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.024
2.
ITO C, MIYAMOTO Y, RAO KS, FURUKAWA H. A Novel Dibenzofuran and Two New Xanthones from Calophyllum panciflorum. C. 1996;44(2):441-443. doi:10.1248/cpb.44.441
3.
Likhitwitayawuid K, Chanmahasathien W, Ruangrungsi N, Krungkrai J. Xanthones with Antimalarial Activity fromGarcinia dulcis. P. 1998;64(03):281-282. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957429
4.
Varache-Lembège M, Moreau S, Larrouture S, Montaudon D, Robert J, Nuhrich A. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of aryl- and heteroaryl-hydrazones derived from xanthone carbaldehydes. E. 2008;43(6):1336-1343. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.09.003
5.
Riscoe M, Kelly J, Winter R. Xanthones as Antimalarial Agents: Discovery, Mode of Action, and Optimization. C. 2005;12(21):2539-2549. doi:10.2174/092986705774370709
6.
Shan B, Cai Y-Z, Brooks JD, Corke H. Antibacterial Properties and Major Bioactive Components of Cinnamon Stick (Cinnamomum burmannii):  Activity against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria. J. 2007;55(14):5484-5490. doi:10.1021/jf070424d
7.
Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah BIGM. Synthetic C-Methoxyphenyl Calix [4] Resorcinarene and Its Antioxidant Activity. J. 2018;5(1):403-408. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00501p403

A Kinetics Study of Solvent Effect on Biological Behavior of Ethyl Benzoate in Protic Binary Solvent System

A.K. Singh

Department of chemistry Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

Rate constant for the base catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate was determined volumetrically in methanol-water mixture for the composition varying from 30 to 70% (v/v) at different temperature ranging from 200 C to 400 C. The initial slow but sharp decrease in rate with gradual addition organic co- solvent in the reaction media and with increasing temperature of reaction has been explained on the basis of salvation and desolvation of initial and transition state to different extent. The Iso-composition  activation energy (EC)  energy for same solution decreases as methanol content is  increases while Iso- Dielectric activation energy (ED) with increase as the dielectric constant of the solvent increases. The trends of variation of numbers of water molecule associated with activated complex increases with increasing temperature from 200 C to 400 C tells about the fact that in presence of protic solvent (methanol) in reaction media, the bimolecular mechanistic path of reaction changed to unimolecular. The enhancement in DG* with simultaneous decrease in (DH*) and (DS*) values of the reaction concluded that the reaction is enthalpy stimulating and entropy control.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references

Screening of Pesticide Residues in Beef, Chevon and Internal Organs of Some Selected Goats Slaughtered in Yola Abattoir of Adamawa State, Nigeria

1Maitera N. Oliver, Adamu Jibril, Bata S. Yusuf, 2,3Louis Hitler, 4Adeleye T. Aderemi, and 5Oluwatomosin F. Oyebanji 

1Departement of  Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola NIGERIA, 2Departement of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, NIGERIA, 3CAS  Key Laboratory For Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Centre For Excellence in Nanoscience, National Centre For Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of  Science, Beijing, CHINA, 4Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, People’s Republic of CHINA, 5Departement of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NIGERIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

In order to avoid the toxic health hazards, it is necessary to determine the level of pesticides in edible tissue like meat, liver, intestine and kidney of common food animal (such as Goat) which are probably reared where pesticides usage in the environment are prevalent. This work examines the presence of pesticides residue levels in beef, chevon, and internal organs obtained from Yola Abattoir in Adamawa State. Organochlorines and organophosphorus were analyzed in the collected meat, chevon and internal organs using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method of extraction with GC-MS techniques. The residue analysis revealed that beef and chevon samples have no traces of organochlorines while, organophosphorus: (anthracene, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, dichlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, primifos-methyl, and malathion) pesticide residue detected were below threshold level of 0.01 mg/kg. The result of the animals’ intestine showed the presence of chlorpyrifos (0.034 ± 0.001 vs. 0.031 ± 0.001) and (0.027 ± 0.001 vs.0.023 ± 0.0014) above the standard values, whereas, the dichlorvos level were (0.059 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.050 ± 0.0007), (0.061 ± 0.0007 vs. 0.043 ± 0.0014) and (0.072 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.031 ± 0.001) below the maximum residual value of 1 mg/kg. The kidney residue revealed that dichlorprifos, diazinon, dimethoate, primi-methyl and malathion were below the maximum residue limit (0.001 mg/kg) in the cow samples while chlorpyrifos: (0.013 ± 0.001 vs. 0.012 ± 0.001 vs. 0.018 ± 0.001 vs. 0.053 ± 0.001) above standard value (0.01 mg/kg). Dichlorvos was detected in the kidney; (0.069 ± 0.0007 vs. 0.035 ± 0.0014) and (0.052 ± 0.0014) below the maximum residual limit (MRL).  Residue analysis in the livers also showed the presence of chlorpyrifos at (0.011 ± 0.001), (0.014 ± 0.001), (0.08 ± 0.001) above the recommended value while dichlorvos (1.012 ± 0.001 vs. 0.027 ± 0.001) and (0.029 ± 0.001 vs. 0.037 ± 0.001) below MRL established by the international health regulation agencies. Residue analysis of all the samples studied shows no trace of organochlorine pesticides. These findings are alarming and threat to public health.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references

EDITORIAL: Vol. 5 No. 1, 2018 by editor in chief

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Editorial

Jacson is one of journals published by JACSOnline Group Publisher (JACSOnline GP). Jacson is a scientific journal as a window of scholars from the field of Applied Chemical Science to disseminate their research works and opinion. The Jacson operates the non-profit work based on the rule according to the CC by NC SA 3.0.  Formerly Jacson is a Jacsonline (j-a-c-s-online)-Journal of Applied Chemical Science-online, however, since September 2016 the Jacsonline had moved to be a publisher and the remained journal of applied chemical science was stated to be named as a Jacson. Since there, the logo of the journal applied since 2012 was removed and its style partially changed. Because of these changes, there is shown differently in logo and style of articles between 2012 to 2015 and thereafter published. Moreover, during the periods up to 2015, the volume and the edition were not having a publishing fixed time. These facts were the first generation in Jacson management.

                The 2016 was the new stage of the Journal of Applied Chemical Science known as Jacson as mentioned above. There was not only changed in it brand style (logo) and separated its website from the publisher only but also the timing of the publishing was decided to perform which is December 14 and June 20. The December 14, 2016 was decided to start the first new version of the publishing processes with 5 articles. Once launching that new rule, the jacson publishes annually one volume with two editions. There is shown that volume 4, 2017 has two editions which are Vol. 4 No.1 and Vol. 4 No. 2, respectively. There were 6 articles for each edition of the Vol. 4 No.1 and Vol. 4 No. 2, respectively. This might be known as the six article rules. The six article rules were included the numbers of article published, reviewing process, included in digital object identifier (DOI), article charges system for open access, and ordering for the hard copy.

                All those changes within the six article rules applied above were for an adaptation of the JACSOnline GP with a new system as a member of the Publisher International Linking Association (PILA) under Crossref section. Since there, the JACSOnline GP ensures the articles published by the Jacson matched with the regulation encouraged by the PILA under the Crossref section. The DOI: 10.22341 is the unique identity of the JACSOnline GP among the publishers throughout the world.  Since Jacson’s articles have own DOI under the umbrella of JACSOnline GP, the articles disseminated by the Jacson are more visible. The articles published are now indexed in any international data bases such as Google Scholar, Crossref, Scilit, Chemical Abstract Service, and Copernicus. Since there, the Jacson as a scientific journal has been on its sit as one of the Scientific International Journals. Because of numbers and qualities of manuscripts entering the Jacson significantly increased, Vol. 5 No.1, numbers of articles disseminated by the Jacson increased which were 10 articles. Therefore, the rules of six articles are significantly moved into the 10 article rules.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacs.on.00501p434

 

Effect of Concentration of Soursop (Annona muricata) Leaf and Soaking Time on Protein and Fat Contents and Sensory Quality of Raw Chicken Meat

Diana A. Wuri1, Jublin F. Bale-Therik2, and Gomera Bouk2

1Department of  Public Health Veterinary, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Nusa Cendana University, Kupang 85361; 2Department of Animal Science, Post Graduate School,  Nusa Cendana University, Kupang 85361, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of concentration of soursop (Annona muricata) leaf and soaking time on protein and fat contents and sensory quality of raw chicken meat during storage.  This research was conducted in Laboratory of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry Nusa Cendana University and Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, East Nusa Tenggara Province Livestock Services Kupang, Indonesia.  The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design in a 4×3 factorial lay out with three replications.  The first factor was concentration of soursop leaf in water (C) with four levels: 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/L water. The second factor was soaking time of chicken meat (T) with three levels: 0, 10, and 20 minutes. The quality of chicken meat changes were monitored chemically and organoleptically at hours 12 of storage time. Data collected of protein and fat contents of chicken meat were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test, while data of organoleptic properties (color and aroma) characteristics were compared using the Kruskal Wallis Test. It was found that both treatment factors concentration of soursop leaf and soaking time with the interactions had significant effect (P<0.01) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. These results also indicated that color characteristics of chicken meat detected by the descriptive panelist were significantly affected by the both factors concentration of soursop leaf and soaking time (P<0.05), while aroma characteristics were insignificantly affected by the treatments.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00501p388

Cited references
1–16

1.
Ahn J, Grun IU, Fernando LN. Antioxidant Properties of Natural Plant Extracts Containing Polyphenolic Compounds in Cooked Ground Beef. J. 2002;67(4):1364-1369. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10290.x
2.
AHN J, GRUN I, MUSTAPHA A. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. F. 2007;24(1):7-14. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2006.04.006
3.
Artés F, Gómez PA, Artés-Hernández F. Physical, Physiological and Microbial Deterioration of Minimally Fresh                Processed Fruits and Vegetables. F. 2007;13(3):177-188. doi:10.1177/1082013207079610
4.
Botsoglou NA, Grigoropoulou SH, Botsoglou E, Govaris A, Papageorgiou G. The effects of dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate on lipid oxidation in raw and cooked turkey during refrigerated storage. M. 2003;65(3):1193-1200. doi:10.1016/s0309-1740(03)00029-9
5.
Brannan RG. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Physicochemical Properties of Ground, Salted, Chicken Thigh Meat during Refrigerated Storage at Different Relative Humidity Levels. Journal of Food Science. 2007;73(1):C36-C40. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00588.x
6.
Mutwakil. Meat Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: A Critical Review. A. 2011;6(4):486-510. doi:10.3844/ajabssp.2011.486.510
7.
Devatkal SK, Thorat PR, Manjunatha M, Anurag RK. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties. J. 2011;49(6):781-785. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0511-0
8.
Devatkal SK, Naveena BM. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage. M. 2010;85(2):306-311. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.01.019
9.
FARAG RS, DAW ZY, HEWEDI FM, EL-BAROTY GSA. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Egyptian Spice Essential Oils. J. 1989;52(9):665-667. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-52.9.665
10.
Fernández J, Pérez-Álvarez JA, Fernández-López JA. Thiobarbituric acid test for monitoring lipid oxidation in meat. F. 1997;59(3):345-353. doi:10.1016/s0308-8146(96)00114-8
11.
Karre L, Lopez K, Getty KJK. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products. M. 2013;94(2):220-227. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.007
12.
Kumar Y, Yadav DN, Ahmad T, Narsaiah K. Recent Trends in the Use of Natural Antioxidants for Meat and Meat Products. C. 2015;14(6):796-812. doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12156
13.
Maqsood S, Benjakul S. Preventive effect of tannic acid in combination with modified atmospheric packaging on the quality losses of the refrigerated ground beef. F. 2010;21(9):1282-1290. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.018
14.
Medina-Meza IG, Barnaba C, Barbosa-Cánovas GV. Effects of high pressure processing on lipid oxidation: A review. I. 2014;22:1-10. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2013.10.012
15.
Resconi V, Escudero A, Campo M. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat. M. 2013;18(6):6748-6781. doi:10.3390/molecules18066748
16.
Rouger A, Tresse O, Zagorec M. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics. M. 2017;5(3):50. doi:10.3390/microorganisms5030050

Identification and Characterization of Fat Compositions Contained within the Hexane Extracts of Canarium Seed Oils (Canarium Indicum L)

Rosalina Y. Kurang and Risnawati I. Sakuang

 Departement of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Tribuana Kalabahi University, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

The one of the plants producing fatty acids is a canary plant which is found everywhere in Alor Island, NTT province, Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the content and types of fatty acids of Canary seed oil (Canarium indicum L). The method used was extraction method and continued by the GC-MS for fatty acid characterization. Results of the analysis showed that Canary seed oil contains saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid and stearic acid while the unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p473

Cited references
1

1.
Shakirin FH, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Yuon LC, Azlan A. Antioxidant capacity of underutilized Malaysian Canarium odontophyllum (dabai) Miq. fruit. J. 2010;23(8):777-781. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2010.04.008

Antioxidant Activities of Chloroform and Aqueous Fractions of Myrmecodia pendens Extract: A Preliminary Study

Yohanes Buang,* Ermelinda Noya, Pius D. Ola, and Theo Da Cunha

Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science and Engineering, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, NTT, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

There have been elucidated the antioxidant activities of chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts isolated from Myrmecodia pendens. The study was firstly started by maceration of Myrmecodia pendens powder in certain quantity of pure methanol solvent and followed by gradual partition of the methanol extract with chloroform and distillated water and then purified with column chromatography. The chemical contents migrated into both those later solvents were detected by GC-MS and their functional groups were detected by FT-IR instruments. Thereafter, the antioxidant activities of the migrated compounds in each those solvents were determined using hydrogen peroxide protocol and the absorbance was measured at 240 nm. The ascorbic acid solution was used as control. The results showed that FT-IR spectrum showed methylene and ethylene groups are existed within the compounds contained by the extracts as well as the hydroxyl, carbonyl, aromatic, and ketone groups. Furthermore, the GC-MS spectrum indicated the compounds that are existed within the chloroform and the aqueous fractions of the extract. The average absorbance of compounds contained within the chloroform and aqueous fractions were 0.161 and 0.112, respectively, whereas that of the control was 0.085. Those absorbance data conclusively indicated that higher absorbance higher residue of chromophore content existed within the fraction and higher failures of hydroxylation reactions. It was however, the antioxidant activities of the aqueous  fractions were higher than those of the chloroform fractions.

The Effectiveness of Bio-Slurry and Inorganic Fertilizer Combination on the Performance of Rice (Oryza sativa L)

Ahmad Khanafi, Yafizham, and D.W. Widjajanto*

Ecology and Crop Production Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275 – INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

The experiment was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of bio-slurry and inorganic fertilizer combination on the performance of two rice varieties. A completely randomized design of factorial pattern was used throughout the experiment. The first factor was the combination of bio-slurry and NPK fertilizer that consisted of P0 : no added fertilizer, P1 : NPK fertilizer only, 550 kg/ha; P2 : bio-slurry 2.3 tons/ha + NPK fertilizer 400 kg/ha; P3 : bio-slurry 4.6 tons/ha + NPK fertilizer 250 kg/ha; P4 : bio-slurry 6.9 tons/ha + NPK fertilizer 100 kg/ha; and P5 : bio-slurry only, 8.5 tons/ha. Treatments were applied based on nitrogen recomended doses of rice, 165 kg N/ha. The second factor was rice varieties that consisted of V1 : IR-64 and V2 : Ciherang. Each treatment was repeated three times. Parameters observed were plant height, number of tillers, weight of 1,000 grains, and rice production. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. On the basis of the experimental results it was concluded that bio-slurry may replace the role of inorganic fertilizer in rice production, especially IR-64 and Ciherang varieties.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00501p418

Validation of Spectrophotometric Method for Analyses of Anionic Surfactant Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (DBS) in Catfish (Clarias batrachus) Using Malachite Green

Hermawan Purba1, Adhitasari Suratman2, and Eko Sugiharto2

1Department of D-III Health Analyst, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan (STIKes) Senior – Medan; 2Department of Chemistry,  Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University – Yogyakarta, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmallPDF | Show Abstract

Validation method of DBS anionic surfactant analysis on Clarias batrachus has been conducted. The method of analysis was divided into two phase, namely the extraction  with solid-liquid extraction using Soxhlet and analysis DBS. The extraction was performed using n-hexane and methanol for 9 and 6 hours respectively. The analysis was performed using Spektrophotometer UV-Vis based on the complex formation of surfactant-malachite green (DBS-MG). These methods are applied to determine DBS accumulation of Clarias batrachus with DBS concentration exposure and DBS concentration of Clarias batrachus in markets. The result showed that the parameters of validation methods has high acceptability as linearity (R2 = 0.99), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.029 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L), sensitivity (ε = 38.15 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1), precision (RSD = 0.10-1.83 %) and accuracy (recovery = 80-92 %). The result of DBS analysis in Clarias batrachus with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 mg/L of DBS concentration exposures obtained 5.5, 6.8, 7.9, 8.7 mg/L respectively and Clarias batrachus from markets in a range 2.0-4.2 mg/L. The result showed that the analysis of DBS anionic surfactants using MG can be applied for Clarias batrachus.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p483

Cited references
1–13

1.
Álvarez-Muñoz D, Sáez M, Lara-Martín PA, Gómez-Parra A, González-Mazo E. New extraction method for the analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in marine organisms. J. 2004;1052(1-2):33-38. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.08.014
2.
Astrid Schneider, Gerhard Hommel, Maria Blettner. Linear Regression Analysis. Deutsches Aerzteblatt Online. November 2010. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0776
3.
Gonzalez-Roca E, Garcia-Albéniz X, Rodriguez-Mulero S, Gomis RR, Kornacker K, Auer H. Accurate Expression Profiling of Very Small Cell Populations. Huang S, ed. P. 2010;5(12):e14418. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014418
4.
Huang X-L, Zhang J-Z. Surfactant-sensitized malachite green method for trace determination of orthophosphate in aqueous solution. A. 2006;580(1):55-67. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.046
5.
Jadhav D, B.N. R, Gogate PR, Rathod VK. Extraction of vanillin from vanilla pods: A comparison study of conventional soxhlet and ultrasound assisted extraction. J. 2009;93(4):421-426. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.02.007
6.
Kargosha K, Ahmadi SH, Mansourian M, Azad J. Simultaneous determination of one nonionic and two anionic surfactants using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and multivariate analysis. T. 2008;75(2):589-593. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2007.11.065
7.
Lara-Martín PA, Gómez-Parra A, González-Mazo E. Simultaneous extraction and determination of anionic surfactants in waters and sediments. J. 2006;1114(2):205-210. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.03.014
8.
León VM, López C, Lara-Martín PA, Prats D, Varó P, González-Mazo E. Removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their degradation intermediates at low temperatures during activated sludge treatment. C. 2006;64(7):1157-1166. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.045
9.
MAENPAA K, KUKKONEN J. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (LAS) in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta). A. 2006;77(3):329-338. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.01.002
10.
Olkowska E, Polkowska Ż, Namieśnik J. Analytical procedures for the determination of surfactants in environmental samples. T. 2012;88:1-13. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2011.10.034
11.
Pérez-Estrada LA, Agüera A, Hernando MD, Malato S, Fernández-Alba AR. Photodegradation of malachite green under natural sunlight irradiation: Kinetic and toxicity of the transformation products. C. 2008;70(11):2068-2075. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.09.008
12.
Sáez M, León V., Gómez-Parra A, González-Mazo E. Extraction and isolation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their intermediate metabolites from various marine organisms. J. 2000;889(1-2):99-104. doi:10.1016/s0021-9673(00)00204-1
13.
Versteeg DJ, Rawlings JM. Bioconcentration and Toxicity of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (C 12 LAS) to Aquatic Organisms Exposed in Experimental Streams. A. 2003;44(2):237-246. doi:10.1007/s00244-002-2017-2

Analysis of Mercury (Hg) in Whitening Cream Distributed in Palu City by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Endah Dwijayanti1 and Susanti2

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical and Sciences, Islam University of Makassar, 2Department Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University of Surabaya. INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

pdf-vsmall PDF | Show Abstract

This study aimed to obtain chemical data of mercury from some whitening cream distributed in Palu City. The whitening cream samples consisted of 3 groups (A, B and C), each sample of the group was extracted through wet destructions. The qualitative analysis was with HCl 2.0 M, KI 0.50 N, NaOH 2.0 N reagents, while the quantitative analysis was performed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results of the qualitative analysis indicated that the A sample reacted with NaOH 2.0 N reagent delivered yellow precipitates and C sample with KI 0.50 N reagent delivered red precipitates. Both data indicated that both samples showed positive reaction of Hg (II). However, the B samples did not occur the positive reaction indicating Hg.  Based on Indonesian National Agency of Drug and Food Control (BPOM) regulation, (No.HK.03.1.23.07.11.6662 of 2011) related to the requirements of microbe and heavy metals contamination in cosmetics, the Hg (II) concentration in cream should be no more than 1,000.0 μg g-1. AAS results found in present study demonstrated that A sample holded mercury content over the level required by the BPOM, which it was 4,554.00 μg g-1.  The B and C samples were 47.18 and 780.32 μg g-1 respectively, both samples did not exceed the limits set by the regulation but continuous application might be toxic for body.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00501p430

Cited references
123456

1.
Agorku ES, Kwaansa-Ansah EE, Voegborlo RB, Amegbletor P, Opoku F. Mercury and hydroquinone content of skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, and the potential risks to the health of Ghanaian women. S. 2016;5(1). doi:10.1186/s40064-016-1967-1
2.
Agrawal SS, Mazhar M. Adulteration of mercury in skin whitening creams – A nephrotoxic agent. C. 2015;5(4):172-175. doi:10.1016/j.cmrp.2015.07.007
3.
Hamann CR, Boonchai W, Wen L, et al. Spectrometric analysis of mercury content in 549 skin-lightening products: Is mercury toxicity a hidden global health hazard? J. 2014;70(2):281-287.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.09.050
4.
Clarkson TW, Magos L. The Toxicology of Mercury and Its Chemical Compounds. C. 2006;36(8):609-662. doi:10.1080/10408440600845619
5.
Dean BJ, Brooks TM, Hodson-Walker G, Hutson DH. Genetic toxicology testing of 41 industrial chemicals. M. 1985;153(1-2):57-77. doi:10.1016/0165-1110(85)90005-3
6.
Peregrino CP, Moreno MV, Miranda SV, Rubio AD, Leal LO. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams. I. 2011;8(6):2516-2523. doi:10.3390/ijerph8062516