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An Analysis of the Meaning in Euphemism Used by Sikka Krowe Ethnic in Habi Village Sikka Regency

Genoveva D. Eni

Graduate English Education, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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The present research is about the meaning of euphemism used by Sikka Krowe ethnic in Habi village Sikka regency. There are two problems to be answered in this writing, namely what are the meanings of the euphemism used by Sikka Krowe ethnic in Habi village? and why people of Sikka Krowe Ethnic who live in Habi village use Euphemism?. The aims of this study are to describe the meanings of the euphemism used by Sikka Krowe ethnic in Habi village and to describe the reasons of Sikka Krowe ethnic who live in Habi village use the euphemism. This study used a descriptive method. Descriptive method is used to describe or to define the condition of the object or subject of the research. The data was gathered through observation and interview.  The result of the research show that (1) there are two types of meaning namely conceptual meaning and associative meaning, (2) in terms of the reason why people of Sikka Krowe ethnic used euphemism, there are two reasons of the using of euphemism in Sikka Krowe ethnic. First is because the speaker wants to talk politely and the second is because the speaker wants to escape their self from the dangerous thing of speaks the taboo or forbidden things directly.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p008

An Analysis of Speech Acts in the Croods Movie

Ajeng F. Intan Kumala

School of Teachers Training and Education, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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This research is aimed to identify the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts in the The Croods movie and to analyze the meaning of locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts in the The Croods movie. The method used in collecting the data is qualitative. This study was conducted by collecting any relevant data and information about the topic or problem of the study from books and internet that are available for the analysis. This research used some steps to be collected: watching the movie, making the transcription and identifying the dialogue, after that classifying the actor’s utterances, and finally classifying the meaning of locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts.  The result shows that all types of speech act occur in the The Croods movie. In this study, the locutionary act is the actor’s utterances. The illocutionary act that mostly used in The Croods Movie are asking and commanding. The perlocutionary act is often used non-literally perlocutionary act.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p001

A Kinetics Study of Solvent Effect and Biological Behavior of Hexanoate Ester in Water-Propanol Solvent System

Anil K. Singh

Department of Chemistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

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Rate constant for the base catalyzed hydrolysis propyl hexnoate was determined volumetrically in methanol-water mixture for the composition varying from 30 to 70% (v/v) at different temperature ranging from 200 C to 400 C. The initial slow but sharp decrease in rate with gradual addition organic co- solvent in the reaction media and with increasing temperature of reaction has been explained on the basis of salvation and desolvation of initial and transition state to different extent. The Iso-composition  activation energy(EC)  energy for same solution increase as propanol content is  increases while Iso- Dielectric activation energy(ED) with decrease as the dielectric constant of the solvent increases. The trends of variation of numbers of water molecule associated with activated complex increases with increasing temperature from 200 C to 400 C tells about the fact that in presence of protic solvent(propanol) in reaction media, the bimolecular mechanistic path of reaction changed to unimolecular. The enhancement in G* with simultaneous increase in (DH*) and (DS*) values of the reaction concluded that the reaction is enthalpy control.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxxpxxx

Kinetics and Dipolar Protic Solvent Effect on Activation Parameter of Base Catalised Hydrolysis of Propyl Hexanoate in Aqueous Solvent System

Anil K. Singh

Department of Chemistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

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The solvent effect of dipolar protic solvent on propyl hexanoate are investigated in water-propanol solvent system of different composition and different temperature ranging from 20 to 40 oC.The specific rate constant values of the reaction was found to decrease with gradual addition of propanol in reaction media. Enhancement in numerical values of free energy of activation (DG*) with simultaneous increase in enthalpy of activation (DH*) and entropy of activation ( DS*)  of reaction reveals that propanol acts as entropy inhibitor and enthalpy stimulator solvent. The iso- kinetic temperature of reaction was evaluated to be 332.52 which is greater than 300. reveals that there is strong and appreciable solvent-solute interaction in reaction media.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxpxxx

Geostatistical Analysis of Plastic Waste Disposal to Ecosystem (Vegetation) in Kefamenanu of North Central Timor Regency

Hermina Manlea

Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Timor,  INDONESIA

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The research was conducted in June – July 2017, in Kefamenanu of North Central Timor District. Number of locations of plastic waste contamination used as research sites were 44 (forty-four) points. The samples in this study w1ere 4 points of plastic waste disposal. The objectives of this research are: 1) to geostatistically mapping soil pH, soil moisture, air temperature and humidity of area contaminated by plastic waste disposal in Kefamenanu, 2) to know which species are found in research location, 3) to understand statistically the relationship between accumulation of plastic waste to vegetation density in Kefamenanu.The method used in this research are: 1) data collection of plastic waste dumping point by using GPS. The location is expressed in latitude and longitude coordinates; 2) sampling method was purposive sampling. The analysis of vegetation is quantitative analysis, and quadratic method was used for research implementation of terrestrial vegetation. The observed data were analyzed in the following ways: a) Geostatistical map of the area was generated from ArcGIS 10.4 software, b) Calculating density parameters, and c) Statistical analysis using t-test for two independent means.The study revealed that From inferential statistical analysis through t-test, it cannot be proved that there is a difference in vegetation density between accumulated and not accumulated plastic waste sites because the number of samples analyzed is very small. Statistically descriptive through the calculation of the mean (also illustrated in the mean graph), there is a difference in the mean of the density of vegetation (either absolute density or relative density) between the accumulated and non-accumulated plastic waste sites.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p477

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Physiological Status of Fattening Bali Cattle Feeding a Concentrate Containing Gliricidia sepium Leaves Meal Fortified with Vitamin B-Complex and Vermicide

Sukawaty  Fattah *1, Yohanis U. L. Sobang*1, Marthen Yunus*1, F. D. Samba*2, and Erna Hartati*1

1Lecturer at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry 2Student of Animal Sciences Post Graduate Program

Nusa Cendana University, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, P.O. Box 104 Kupang 85001 East Nusa Tenggara Telp.(0380) 881580, Fax (0380) 881674, INDONESIA

1The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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This research has been conducted at Oeletsala village, for 10 weeks from 23 November 2015 to 23 January 2016, comprised of 2 weeks preliminary and 8 weeks for data collection. The aim of the research was to study the effect of feeding on Gliricidia sepium leaves meal concentrate, B. complex vitamin and vermicide on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of fattening Bali cattle. Experimental animals used were nine young male Bali cattle of 1.5-2 years old, with an initial body weight ranging from 82 to 124 kg (KV=15.114%) in average of 98.7±14.93 kg. The experimental design used was Randomized Block Design with three treatments and three replications. Those treatments were R0 = leaves of Leucaena leucocephala and Ceiba pentandra+ native grass ad libitum (as commonly practiced by local farmers), R1 = R0 + 2 kg concentrate, and R2 = R1 + B. complex vitamin and vermicide. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significantly effect of the treatments on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of the fattening Bali cattle. In conclusion, there was no significantly effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves meal concentrate, vitamin B. complex and vermicide on rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and heart rate of the fattening Bali cattle.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p464

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Astuti DA, Sudarman A. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS. B. 2015;39(2):116. doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v39i2.6716
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Ake A. Effects of transportation and thermal stress on donkeys in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria: A review. J. 2013;7(8):92-101. doi:10.5897/jcab2013.0370
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Bulitta FS, Aradom S, Gebresenbet G. Effect of Transport Time of up to 12 Hours on Welfare of Cows and Bulls. J. 2015;08(02):161-182. doi:10.4236/jssm.2015.82019
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Gaughan JB, Davis MS, Mader TL. Wetting and the physiological responses of grain-fed cattle in a heated environment. A. 2004;55(3):253. doi:10.1071/ar03110
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Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Faucitano L, Dadgar S, Shand P, González LA, Crowe TG. Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A review. M. 2012;92(3):227-243. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.010
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Kendall PE, Verkerk GA, Webster JR, Tucker CB. Sprinklers and Shade Cool Cows and Reduce Insect-Avoidance Behavior in Pasture-Based Dairy Systems. J. 2007;90(8):3671-3680. doi:10.3168/jds.2006-766
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Buckham Sporer KR, Weber PSD, Burton JL, Earley B, Crowe MA. Transportation of young beef bulls alters circulating physiological parameters that may be effective biomarkers of stress1. Journal of Animal Science. 2008;86(6):1325-1334. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0762
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Wuri DA, Bale-Therik JF, Bouk G. Effect of Concentration of Soursop (Annona muricata) Leaf and Soaking Time on Protein and Fat Contents and Sensory Quality of Raw Chicken Meat. J. 2018;5(1):388-393. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00501p388
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Fattah S, Sobang YUL, et al. Improving Feed Intake and Digestibility of Rations for Male Bali Cattle Fattened with Common Practice Meals, in Timor, by the Addition of a Complete Diet Containing Moringa oleifera Powder. J. December 2017:373-376. doi:10.22341/jacs.on.00402p373

Extraction and Characterization of Crop Oil from Seed Kernels of Feunkase (Thevetia peruviana) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

Suwari1, Herry Z. Kotta2, and Yohanes Buang1

1Chemistry Department and 2Mining Department, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, Nusa Cendana University Jl. Adisucipto Kampus Baru Penfui, Kupang, INDONESIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The seed kernels of Feunkase (Thevetia peruviana) was extracted with n-hexane and methanol mixture in a soxhlet extractor. The optimum condition for extraction of the crop oil from the seed kernel of Feunkase using conventional soxhlet technique was studied.  Solvent used was n-hexane and n-hexane – methanol binary solvent. The parameters investigated effecting the oil yield involved various solvent polarities, extraction time and temperature. Each experiment was conducted in 250 cm3 soxhlet apparatus. The extracted oil was analyzed to examine the physicochemical characteristic, included: density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and water content. The optimum conditions were found after 4.0 h extraction time, extraction temperature of 70 oC and n-hexane – methanol ratio of 50:50 (polarity index 3.30). The oil extract was found to be 46.84 ± 0.26%.  The physicochemical properties of the extracted oil were density of 785 (kg/m3), viscosity of 0.68 (mm2/s), iodine value of 41.11 (g I2/100 g oil), acid value of 0.09 (mg KOH/g oil), saponification value of 108.4 (mg KOH/g oil) and water content of 0.034 (%). These results revealed that the crop oil from seed kernel Feunkase is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p459

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Stability-Indicating HPLC Methods for Determination of Duloxetine HCl in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations with Structure Elucidation of Degradation Products and Determination of Degradation Reaction Kinetics

Maha F. Abdel-Ghany a1, Nermine V. Faresa2, and Eman W. E. Faragb*

aAin Shams University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Analytical Chemistry Department, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, EGYPT bAmoun Pharmaceutical company, Obour City, Industrial Zone (1), Block 13015, Qhalubeya, EGYPT

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The present study describes the development and subsequent validation of a stability-indicating method for determination of [Duloxetine HCl] in the presence of its degradation products, using isocratic RP-HPLC chromatographic techniques. In the HPLC technique; Agilent eclipse XDB-C18 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm column was used as a stationary phase, “40% ACN, 60% (0.1% phosphoric acid + 0.2% triethylamine) pH 2.4 ± 0.05 ” as a mobile phase, wavelength measurement at 230nm. The utilized chromatographic methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and successfully applied for determination of the studied drug in pure form, in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulations with good extraction recoveries. HPLC/MS method was used for structure elucidation of degradation products. Kinetics of degradation reaction was studied. All the results were statistically compared with reference method, where there is no significant differences found. The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical formulations.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Comparative Studies on in-situ and Conventional Transesterification of Palm Kernel Biomass for Biodiesel Production

Ikechukwu D. Chikaodili1, Ifijen I. Hilary2, and Esther U. Ikhuoria1

University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 1Department of Chemistry, 2Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Research Operations Department, NIGERIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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This study investigated in-situ transesterification of palm kernel biomass at variable reaction time (4h, 5h, and 6h), catalyst loading (2wt%, 3wt%, and 5wt%), and reaction temperatures (30oC, 40oC, and 50oC). The biodiesel yields were observed to vary with these parameters. GC/MS analysis showed high fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) content for all the prepared biodiesel samples (C-18:1, C-14:0, C-16:0, and C-18:0). 2wt% catalyst loading, 4h reaction time and 50oC reaction temperature were observed to be the best reaction conditions from the experimented parameters that gave the best biodiesel yields at 300 rpm mixing intensity. In-situ method records a higher degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel (93.93%) compared to the conventional transesterification method which gave 89.45%. The kinematic viscosity, acid value, and iodine value of 3.96 mm2/s, 0.5 mg KOHg-1, and 120 g100g-1 were found to be within the limits of ASTM D6751-09 and EN14214 standards. These results confirm that an efficient production of biodiesel from palm kernel biomass could be possible through an in-situ acidic transesterification process.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxpxxx

Cited references

Application of TLC Densitometric Method for Estimation of Ipragliflozine in Pure and in Tablet Dosage form

Fathy M. Salama, Khalid A. M.  Attia, Ahmed A. Abouserie, Ragab A. Mabrouk, and Ahmed M Abdelzaher

Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, 11751 Nasr City, CAIRO, EGYPT

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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A novel stability-indicative of TLC densitometric method has been developed for estimation of ipragliflozin in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of its oxidative degradation products. The proposed method based on determination of the UV-visualized bands after TLC separation of drug. The studied drugs were quantitatively separated on 60 F254 silica gel plates using mobile phase consists of [ Methanol : n-hexane : Ethyl acetate : Acetonitrile (1 : 1 : 1 : 0.1, by volume) ] with UV detection at 230 nm. The studied drugs were satisfactorily resolved with retention factor (Rf) values of 0.77 ± 0.005 and 0.29 ± 0.01 for ipragliflozin and its oxidative degradation products, respectively. The proposed method has been validated according to ICH guidelines and show high sensitivity, accuracy and precision and the results were statistically compared to manufacturing method.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references