Category: Article Direct

Antioxidant Activity of Methanol and n-Hexane Fractions of the Barf of Kersen (Muntingia Calabura) Extracts

Rosalina Y. Kurang and Zakarias A. Mautuka

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tribuana Kalabahi, Alor, INDONESIA

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Antioxidants are substances that can slow or prevent the oxidation process. Antioxidants can also be defined as compounds that protect cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen free radicals. Plants containing antioxidants are chemotactonomically characterized by chemical compounds derived from phenolics such as flavonoids, coumarin, xanthones, benzophenone, tannin, lignin, and anthraquinone. Muntingia calabura is one of the plants that is well known in Indonesian forests. Based on previous research, it was reported that a number of flavones and their derivatives that have bioactivity have been successfully isolated from this plant. One area that has this plant is Alor island- Nusa Tenggara Timur. This plant has several benefits, including as a trasditional medicine. The community uses this plant, where as a shade plant for shade and the fruit is consumed directly. However, until now the community has not used this plant as a medicinal plant and there has also been no research on Kersen (Muntingia calabura) from this area. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the bark Muntingia calabura (Kersen) methanol and n-hexane fraction. The method used is the extraction and the DPPH method. The results obtained showed that the antioxidant activity of the bark of Muntingia calabura methanol fraction (IC50 124.58 ppm) was higher than the n-hexane fraction (IC50 244.95 ppm). From the IC50  values, of the both fractions showed that the methanol fraction was very active against antioxidants because it had an IC50 value close to the IC50 value of the positive control 112.872 ppm, while the hexane fraction was less active against antioxidants but still had the potential as an antioxidant.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502p488

Healthy Ageing and Bioactive Lipids: Prevention of Fatty Liver and Alzheimer’s Disease

Teruyoshi YANAGITAa, b, c

aProfessor Emeritus of Saga University, JAPAN, and National ANCASH University, PERU, bVisiting Professor of Chinese Ocean University, CHINA, and Nishi Kyushu University, JAPAN,  Director of Saga Regional Industry Support Center: Saga Food & Cosmetic Laboratoryc

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Food factors are considered to be critical for health promotion and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (life-style related diseases). Metabolic syndrome is typical common disease, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome is also closely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cognitive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease. The quality and quantity of dietary lipids have been recognized as contributing factors in the development and prevention of these diseases. Recent evidences suggest the preventive role of dietary bioactive lipids. In this context, we review the beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA, EPA, DPA, DHA, and THA) and phospholipids on metabolic syndrome and related diseases such as fatty liver and insulin resistance. Phospholipids have been reported to provide favorable effects against neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. The studies indicate that n-3 LCPUFA-phospholipids reduce the oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain hippopotamus and prevent the accumulation of amyloid β (A β) and then prevent the memory loss and the cognitive disorders. In conclusion, functional bioactive lipids may apply as supplements and/or functional food ingredients to relieve metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00601pxxx

Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Disinfectant from Traditional Palm Wine

Annytha Detha1, Frans U. Datta2, Yunita Mila2, Yohanes Laka1, and Helda Gadja2

1Department of Public Health Veterinary, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nusa Cendana University, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

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The aim of this study focuses on the antimicrobial activity of traditional wine, named Sopi and Moke, as natural antimicrobials. Evaluation of the decrease of bacterial contamination was done on poultry, cattle farms, and include farms. In this study, 108 swab samples were expected from twelve farms of Kupang city according to purposive random sampling design. Swab samples were analyzed for total aerobic plate count (TPC). The research proves that there is a decrease in the number of microbial decay contamination before and after a forester, Sopi and Moke conducted at four poultry, four cattle farms, and four include a screened farms compared with a commercial disinfectant (Formaldes®). The antimicrobial ability of Sopi and Moke can reduce the number of bacteria that contaminate the environment around the cage. The results of this research could be an indicator of Sopi and Moke for use as natural alternative disinfectants.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

A Comparative Study on Temperature Effect on the Oxidative Stability of Rubber Seed Oil

I.H. Ifijen1*, F. Asiodu2, A. Ohifuemen1, O. G. Agbonlahon, J. O.  Aikhuele, A.I. AIgbodion

1 Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Edo State     2 Chemistry department, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin-city, Edo state, NIGERIA.

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Rubber seed oil (RSO) was obtained via mechanical extraction and characterized for its initial physicochemical properties: pH (4.60), specific gravity (0.94), peroxide value (16.20meqO2/kg), acid value (55.749 mg/KOH/g), and free fatty acid value (28.071/KOH/g). Thereafter, the rubber seed oil was subjected to oxidative degradation at five different temperatures (600C, 720 C, 800C, 900C, 980C) for a period of 6 hours, and the peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV) and free fatty acid value (FFA) were determined at intervals of 30 minutes. The results showed that the PV increased with increasing temperature and increasing heating times, attaining a maximum value at 180 minutes, after which it showed a steady decrease. Kinetic analysis of the oxidative degradation of the RSO using PV measurements revealed that the obtained data was consistent with a first order rate kinetic model (for the first 180 minutes of heating) especially at temperatures 600C, 900C and 980C  as revealed in the good R2 values obtained from the kinetic plots at these temperatures. However, the AV and FFA values obtained at all the temperatures studied showed only marginal changes with increasing heating times and temperatures suggesting that RSO might be quite stable to secondary oxidation.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxxpxxx

A Descriptive Study of ‘Ko’ in Kupang Malay

Edron Natu Obe Sa’u

English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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This thesis is entitled “A Descriptive Study of ‘Ko’ in Kupang Malay”. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative to answer the questions (1) what is the morphological status of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay?, (2)  what is the meaning of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay?, (3) what are the functions  of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay?. The aims of this research are to find out the morphological status of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay, to know the meaning of ‘ko’in Kupang Malay, and to know the functions of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay. The techniques to collect the data were observation, interview and note taking. After doing the observation, the writer analyzed the data and the result shows that the morphological status of ‘ko’ in Kupang Malay is a free morpheme because it is capable of standing alone as a complete word. The word ‘ko’ can be a content words namely as an adverb, and it can also be function word, functioning as conjunction and interrogative word. The meaning of ko as an adverb are about, maybe, perhaps, probably and just, the function of ko as an adverb is to modify another adverb and verb. The meaning of ko as conjunction are or, because, if, and so that, the function of ko as conjunction is to conjoin two independent clauses. The meaning of ko as interrogative words is as a Yes-No question words; those question beginning with an auxiliary verb and to be, the function of ko as interrogative word is to ask question and require Yes or No as the answer.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p040

An Analysis of Questions and Answers in an EFL Classroom of St. Joseph Junior High School in Academic Year 2015/2016

Yuliana Febriana Ngadi

Graduate English Education, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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This project entitled “An analysis of questions and answers in an EFL classroom at St. Joseph Junior High School”. This study aims at knowing: 1) the types of questions and answers used in EFL classroom dialogue at St. Joseph Junior High School in academic year 2015/2016; 2) the grammatical errors of questions and answers used by teacher and students in EFL classroom dialogue at St. Joseph Junior High School in academic year 2015/2016. And, 3) How teacher and students ask questions and answers them in EFL classroom dialogue at St. Joseph Junior High School in academic year 2015/2016. The research used qualitative research method. The research subjects were 1 teacher of English and 32 students of grade VIII chosen purposively. The result shows that types of questions and answers are used by teacher and students in EFL classroom dialogue are limited on by purpose and by grammatical form questions. Then, by purpose including descrtiptive questions, relational question, and causal questions, and by grammatical form including polar questions and non-polar questions. Then, grammatical errors found in the teacher and students’ questions and answers are ommission, misformation and misordering. Meanwhile, the aims of asking questions and giving answers are teacher gives questios to begin the class, teacher gives questions to lead the students to the topic of the material which is being taught, teacher mostly gives questions started by modal auxiliary can, and students answered their teacher with short answers, and students mostly answer the questions together.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p048

Analysis of the Jargons Used by Players of the Clash of Clans Game, an Online Game

Yanuarius Alfando Djawa

English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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This research focuses on three aspects of jargon used in COC’s game, namely forms, meanings and the manner how to use them. The aims of this research are to identify the jargon and to find out the form, meanings and how to use them. In finding out those aspects, descriptive qualitative method has been employed. Techniques of data collection have been done by monitoring and interview. The procedure of data analysis by reviewing all the data gained from the result of monitoring and interview and analyzed through a systematic procedure including identifying the jargon, describing their form and meanings and finding out the way how to use them. As the descriptive qualitative research, the data found during the time of research have been included in this thesis. The research reveals that the jargon used in COC Game consists of twenty two jargons namely Mentok, Zonk, Kutu, Premature, Lava, Farming, Sleding, Push Trophy, BMX, TH, CC, AQ, ML, MINIMAX, GIBARCH, CLING, Intro, Req, Loons, Co, Valk, up. The benefits of this research in teaching and learning English are as the reference for those who want to enrich their knowledge about jargons especially, for other future researchers who are interested in conducting research under similar topic. It can also be used as the medium to help students or anyone in enhancing their skills in communicating in English particularly when they use jargons.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p028

Translation is Impossible: A Comparative Study of Ideological Meaning of “The Beatitudes” in Mathew Chapter 5 of Kupang Malay, Indonesian, and English Bible

Yandres Answo Djedelbert Lao

Graduate English Education, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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This study entitled TRANSLATION IS IMPOSSIBLE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IDEOLOGICAL MEANING OF “THE BEATITUDES” IN MATHEW CHAPTER 5 OF KUPANG MALAY, INDONESIAN, AND ENGLISH BIBLE. It aims at; 1) figuring out types of ideological meaning of “The Beatitude” in Kupang Malay, Indonesian, and English Bible; and 2) finding out the differences of ideological meaning of “The Beatitude” of Kupang Malay, Indonesian, and English Bible that contribute to the religious meaning. The data of this research were taken from Mathew chapter 5 verses 1 to 12 of Kupang Malay, Indonesian, and English Bible. Comparative analysis was applied in investigating this topic. The result of this research proved that there are three types of ideological meaning found in three different languages of Bible. “The Beatitudes” in Indonesian and English Bible are equivalent in form of ideology of understanding real life circumstance while Kupang Malay version has ideology as subject determination and social status types. The dissimilarities were found on the construction of paradox, sources, and the use background of the ideological features of those three different languages of Bible. The final finding of this project confirms that translation is impossible in terms of ideological meanings used in “The Beatitudes” found in Kupang Malay, Indonesian, and English Bible.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p024

The Use of English Subtitle in Movie to Improve Students’ Vocabulary: An Experimental Study in Grade IX of SMPN 1 Gunungsari Academic Year 2015/2016

Rosmia Citra Lestari

English Education Department – University of Mataram, INDONESIA

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This study aimed to know whether using English subtitle in watching is effective or not in increasing students’ vocabulary in grade IX SMPN 1 Gunungsari Academic Year 2015/2016. This study is an experimental study. The population of this study is students in grade IX consisting of 308 students. By using purposive sampling technique, class D was selected as experimental group with 31 students and class E was selected as control group with 31 students. Both groups were given pre-test, treatment and post-test. Pre-test and post-test  consisted of 20 questions, 10 questions of matching words and 10 questions of fill in the blank with kind of reading text. The type of test related to the teaching material in grade IX was narrative text because the movie was folktale movie. Assessing students’ attitude was needed in related of K-13 curriculum because the school was already used K-13 curriculum. The data was analyzed quantitatively using t-test. The result of t-test was 3.25 with   t-table at 0.005 = 2.66028 and t-table at 0.001 = 3.23171 it means that t-test is higher than the t-table and therefore the use of English subtitle was effective in increasing students’ vocabulary.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p019

An Analysis of Traditional Tattoo (Lunat) Used by People in Baus Village, Boking District South Central Timor Regency (A Semiotics Study)

Nancy Kurniaty Leokoy

English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Nusa Cendana University, Kupang, INDONESIA

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2015. An Analysis of Traditional Tattoo (Lunat) Used By People In Baus Village, Boking District, South Central Timor Regency (A Semiotics Study), English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Science, Nusa Cendana Univeristy. Supervisors: (I) Dr.Agustinus Semiun, MA (II) Dra. Hilda Nalley, M.Ed. This research was conducted to answer the following problems : (1) What are the motifs of traditional tattoo (lunat) used by the people in Baus village, Boking District, South Central Timor Regency? (2) What are the meanings of the motifs of traditional tattoo (lunat) used by the people in Baus village, Boking District, South Central Timor Regency? (3) What are the functions of traditional tattoo (lunat) used by the people in Baus village,Boking District, South Central Timor Regency?. The aims of this research are to find out and analyze the motifs, meanings and functions of traditional tattoo (lunat) used by the people in Baus village, Boking District, South Central Timor Regency. The method used to collect the data was descriptive qualitative method. In gathering the data, the researcher applied observation and interview to seven people who have traditional tattoo (lunat) as the informants. Techniques of data collection applied in this research were note taking, recording and documentation. In analyzing the data, the researcher took the picture (photo) of lunats from the informants who have lunat on their body. Then, the researcher analyzed the motifs, meanings and functions of lunats based on the semiotics perspective and cultural point of view of people in Baus village. The result of research showed that traditional tattoo (lunat) used by people in Baus Village consist of seven motifs with their meaning. Lunat kanaf (tattoo of name) used to show someone’s identity. Lunat nekaf (tattoo of love) revealed someone’s feeling. Lunat bik lusu (tattoo of lizard) as the reminder and the message bearer for them. Lunat kolo (tattoo of bird) told people that the time to plant is coming. Lunat teke (tattoo of gecko) told about the change of new month. Lunat nape (tattoo of butterfly) symbolized the process of human life. Lunat pika buuf (tattoo of plate’s bottom) became a commemoration that Japan ever colonized Indonesia. Meanwhile, there were some functions of lunats such as aesthetic function to express their art skill especially in drawing a design. In social view, by making lunat people can keep their fraternity. Dealing with historical function, lunat becomes a medium for people in Baus Village to immortalize Japanese colonialism as a history for the next generation.

https://doi.org/10.22341/ajes.000101p012

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