Category: In press articles

Healthy Ageing and Bioactive Lipids: Prevention of Fatty Liver and Alzheimer’s Disease

Teruyoshi YANAGITAa, b, c

aProfessor Emeritus of Saga University, JAPAN, and National ANCASH University, PERU, bVisiting Professor of Chinese Ocean University, CHINA, and Nishi Kyushu University, JAPAN,  Director of Saga Regional Industry Support Center: Saga Food & Cosmetic Laboratoryc

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Food factors are considered to be critical for health promotion and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (life-style related diseases). Metabolic syndrome is typical common disease, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome is also closely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cognitive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease. The quality and quantity of dietary lipids have been recognized as contributing factors in the development and prevention of these diseases. Recent evidences suggest the preventive role of dietary bioactive lipids. In this context, we review the beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA, EPA, DPA, DHA, and THA) and phospholipids on metabolic syndrome and related diseases such as fatty liver and insulin resistance. Phospholipids have been reported to provide favorable effects against neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. The studies indicate that n-3 LCPUFA-phospholipids reduce the oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain hippopotamus and prevent the accumulation of amyloid β (A β) and then prevent the memory loss and the cognitive disorders. In conclusion, functional bioactive lipids may apply as supplements and/or functional food ingredients to relieve metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00601pxxx

Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Disinfectant from Traditional Palm Wine

Annytha Detha1, Frans U. Datta2, Yunita Mila2, Yohanes Laka1, and Helda Gadja2

1Department of Public Health Veterinary, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nusa Cendana University, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The aim of this study focuses on the antimicrobial activity of traditional wine, named Sopi and Moke, as natural antimicrobials. Evaluation of the decrease of bacterial contamination was done on poultry, cattle farms, and include farms. In this study, 108 swab samples were expected from twelve farms of Kupang city according to purposive random sampling design. Swab samples were analyzed for total aerobic plate count (TPC). The research proves that there is a decrease in the number of microbial decay contamination before and after a forester, Sopi and Moke conducted at four poultry, four cattle farms, and four include a screened farms compared with a commercial disinfectant (Formaldes®). The antimicrobial ability of Sopi and Moke can reduce the number of bacteria that contaminate the environment around the cage. The results of this research could be an indicator of Sopi and Moke for use as natural alternative disinfectants.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

A Comparative Study on Temperature Effect on the Oxidative Stability of Rubber Seed Oil

I.H. Ifijen1*, F. Asiodu2, A. Ohifuemen1, O. G. Agbonlahon, J. O.  Aikhuele, A.I. AIgbodion

1 Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Edo State     2 Chemistry department, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin-city, Edo state, NIGERIA.

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Rubber seed oil (RSO) was obtained via mechanical extraction and characterized for its initial physicochemical properties: pH (4.60), specific gravity (0.94), peroxide value (16.20meqO2/kg), acid value (55.749 mg/KOH/g), and free fatty acid value (28.071/KOH/g). Thereafter, the rubber seed oil was subjected to oxidative degradation at five different temperatures (600C, 720 C, 800C, 900C, 980C) for a period of 6 hours, and the peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV) and free fatty acid value (FFA) were determined at intervals of 30 minutes. The results showed that the PV increased with increasing temperature and increasing heating times, attaining a maximum value at 180 minutes, after which it showed a steady decrease. Kinetic analysis of the oxidative degradation of the RSO using PV measurements revealed that the obtained data was consistent with a first order rate kinetic model (for the first 180 minutes of heating) especially at temperatures 600C, 900C and 980C  as revealed in the good R2 values obtained from the kinetic plots at these temperatures. However, the AV and FFA values obtained at all the temperatures studied showed only marginal changes with increasing heating times and temperatures suggesting that RSO might be quite stable to secondary oxidation.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxxpxxx

A Kinetics Study of Solvent Effect and Biological Behavior of Hexanoate Ester in Water-Propanol Solvent System

Anil K. Singh

Department of Chemistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Rate constant for the base catalyzed hydrolysis propyl hexnoate was determined volumetrically in methanol-water mixture for the composition varying from 30 to 70% (v/v) at different temperature ranging from 200 C to 400 C. The initial slow but sharp decrease in rate with gradual addition organic co- solvent in the reaction media and with increasing temperature of reaction has been explained on the basis of salvation and desolvation of initial and transition state to different extent. The Iso-composition  activation energy(EC)  energy for same solution increase as propanol content is  increases while Iso- Dielectric activation energy(ED) with decrease as the dielectric constant of the solvent increases. The trends of variation of numbers of water molecule associated with activated complex increases with increasing temperature from 200 C to 400 C tells about the fact that in presence of protic solvent(propanol) in reaction media, the bimolecular mechanistic path of reaction changed to unimolecular. The enhancement in G* with simultaneous increase in (DH*) and (DS*) values of the reaction concluded that the reaction is enthalpy control.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxxpxxx

Kinetics and Dipolar Protic Solvent Effect on Activation Parameter of Base Catalised Hydrolysis of Propyl Hexanoate in Aqueous Solvent System

Anil K. Singh

Department of Chemistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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The solvent effect of dipolar protic solvent on propyl hexanoate are investigated in water-propanol solvent system of different composition and different temperature ranging from 20 to 40 oC.The specific rate constant values of the reaction was found to decrease with gradual addition of propanol in reaction media. Enhancement in numerical values of free energy of activation (DG*) with simultaneous increase in enthalpy of activation (DH*) and entropy of activation ( DS*)  of reaction reveals that propanol acts as entropy inhibitor and enthalpy stimulator solvent. The iso- kinetic temperature of reaction was evaluated to be 332.52 which is greater than 300. reveals that there is strong and appreciable solvent-solute interaction in reaction media.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxpxxx

Stability-Indicating HPLC Methods for Determination of Duloxetine HCl in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations with Structure Elucidation of Degradation Products and Determination of Degradation Reaction Kinetics

Maha F. Abdel-Ghany a1, Nermine V. Faresa2, and Eman W. E. Faragb*

aAin Shams University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Analytical Chemistry Department, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, EGYPT bAmoun Pharmaceutical company, Obour City, Industrial Zone (1), Block 13015, Qhalubeya, EGYPT

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The present study describes the development and subsequent validation of a stability-indicating method for determination of [Duloxetine HCl] in the presence of its degradation products, using isocratic RP-HPLC chromatographic techniques. In the HPLC technique; Agilent eclipse XDB-C18 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm column was used as a stationary phase, “40% ACN, 60% (0.1% phosphoric acid + 0.2% triethylamine) pH 2.4 ± 0.05 ” as a mobile phase, wavelength measurement at 230nm. The utilized chromatographic methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and successfully applied for determination of the studied drug in pure form, in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulations with good extraction recoveries. HPLC/MS method was used for structure elucidation of degradation products. Kinetics of degradation reaction was studied. All the results were statistically compared with reference method, where there is no significant differences found. The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical formulations.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Comparative Studies on in-situ and Conventional Transesterification of Palm Kernel Biomass for Biodiesel Production

Ikechukwu D. Chikaodili1, Ifijen I. Hilary2, and Esther U. Ikhuoria1

University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 1Department of Chemistry, 2Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Research Operations Department, NIGERIA

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This study investigated in-situ transesterification of palm kernel biomass at variable reaction time (4h, 5h, and 6h), catalyst loading (2wt%, 3wt%, and 5wt%), and reaction temperatures (30oC, 40oC, and 50oC). The biodiesel yields were observed to vary with these parameters. GC/MS analysis showed high fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) content for all the prepared biodiesel samples (C-18:1, C-14:0, C-16:0, and C-18:0). 2wt% catalyst loading, 4h reaction time and 50oC reaction temperature were observed to be the best reaction conditions from the experimented parameters that gave the best biodiesel yields at 300 rpm mixing intensity. In-situ method records a higher degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel (93.93%) compared to the conventional transesterification method which gave 89.45%. The kinematic viscosity, acid value, and iodine value of 3.96 mm2/s, 0.5 mg KOHg-1, and 120 g100g-1 were found to be within the limits of ASTM D6751-09 and EN14214 standards. These results confirm that an efficient production of biodiesel from palm kernel biomass could be possible through an in-situ acidic transesterification process.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00xxxpxxx

Cited references

Application of TLC Densitometric Method for Estimation of Ipragliflozine in Pure and in Tablet Dosage form

Fathy M. Salama, Khalid A. M.  Attia, Ahmed A. Abouserie, Ragab A. Mabrouk, and Ahmed M Abdelzaher

Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, 11751 Nasr City, CAIRO, EGYPT

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A novel stability-indicative of TLC densitometric method has been developed for estimation of ipragliflozin in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of its oxidative degradation products. The proposed method based on determination of the UV-visualized bands after TLC separation of drug. The studied drugs were quantitatively separated on 60 F254 silica gel plates using mobile phase consists of [ Methanol : n-hexane : Ethyl acetate : Acetonitrile (1 : 1 : 1 : 0.1, by volume) ] with UV detection at 230 nm. The studied drugs were satisfactorily resolved with retention factor (Rf) values of 0.77 ± 0.005 and 0.29 ± 0.01 for ipragliflozin and its oxidative degradation products, respectively. The proposed method has been validated according to ICH guidelines and show high sensitivity, accuracy and precision and the results were statistically compared to manufacturing method.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references

A Kinetics Study of Solvent Effect on Biological Behavior of Ethyl Benzoate in Protic Binary Solvent System

A.K. Singh

Department of chemistry Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, INDIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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Rate constant for the base catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate was determined volumetrically in methanol-water mixture for the composition varying from 30 to 70% (v/v) at different temperature ranging from 200 C to 400 C. The initial slow but sharp decrease in rate with gradual addition organic co- solvent in the reaction media and with increasing temperature of reaction has been explained on the basis of salvation and desolvation of initial and transition state to different extent. The Iso-composition  activation energy (EC)  energy for same solution decreases as methanol content is  increases while Iso- Dielectric activation energy (ED) with increase as the dielectric constant of the solvent increases. The trends of variation of numbers of water molecule associated with activated complex increases with increasing temperature from 200 C to 400 C tells about the fact that in presence of protic solvent (methanol) in reaction media, the bimolecular mechanistic path of reaction changed to unimolecular. The enhancement in DG* with simultaneous decrease in (DH*) and (DS*) values of the reaction concluded that the reaction is enthalpy stimulating and entropy control.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references

Screening of Pesticide Residues in Beef, Chevon and Internal Organs of Some Selected Goats Slaughtered in Yola Abattoir of Adamawa State, Nigeria

1Maitera N. Oliver, Adamu Jibril, Bata S. Yusuf, 2,3Louis Hitler, 4Adeleye T. Aderemi, and 5Oluwatomosin F. Oyebanji 

1Departement of  Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola NIGERIA, 2Departement of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, NIGERIA, 3CAS  Key Laboratory For Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Centre For Excellence in Nanoscience, National Centre For Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of  Science, Beijing, CHINA, 4Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, People’s Republic of CHINA, 5Departement of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NIGERIA

The JACSOnline Group Publisher publishes the work under the licensing of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Authors retain the copyright to their work. Users may read, copy and distribute the work in any medium  provided the authors and the journal are appropriately credited. The users may not use the material for commercial purposes.

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In order to avoid the toxic health hazards, it is necessary to determine the level of pesticides in edible tissue like meat, liver, intestine and kidney of common food animal (such as Goat) which are probably reared where pesticides usage in the environment are prevalent. This work examines the presence of pesticides residue levels in beef, chevon, and internal organs obtained from Yola Abattoir in Adamawa State. Organochlorines and organophosphorus were analyzed in the collected meat, chevon and internal organs using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method of extraction with GC-MS techniques. The residue analysis revealed that beef and chevon samples have no traces of organochlorines while, organophosphorus: (anthracene, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, dichlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, primifos-methyl, and malathion) pesticide residue detected were below threshold level of 0.01 mg/kg. The result of the animals’ intestine showed the presence of chlorpyrifos (0.034 ± 0.001 vs. 0.031 ± 0.001) and (0.027 ± 0.001 vs.0.023 ± 0.0014) above the standard values, whereas, the dichlorvos level were (0.059 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.050 ± 0.0007), (0.061 ± 0.0007 vs. 0.043 ± 0.0014) and (0.072 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.031 ± 0.001) below the maximum residual value of 1 mg/kg. The kidney residue revealed that dichlorprifos, diazinon, dimethoate, primi-methyl and malathion were below the maximum residue limit (0.001 mg/kg) in the cow samples while chlorpyrifos: (0.013 ± 0.001 vs. 0.012 ± 0.001 vs. 0.018 ± 0.001 vs. 0.053 ± 0.001) above standard value (0.01 mg/kg). Dichlorvos was detected in the kidney; (0.069 ± 0.0007 vs. 0.035 ± 0.0014) and (0.052 ± 0.0014) below the maximum residual limit (MRL).  Residue analysis in the livers also showed the presence of chlorpyrifos at (0.011 ± 0.001), (0.014 ± 0.001), (0.08 ± 0.001) above the recommended value while dichlorvos (1.012 ± 0.001 vs. 0.027 ± 0.001) and (0.029 ± 0.001 vs. 0.037 ± 0.001) below MRL established by the international health regulation agencies. Residue analysis of all the samples studied shows no trace of organochlorine pesticides. These findings are alarming and threat to public health.

https://doi.org/10.22341/jacson.00502pxxx

Cited references